HS First Year English Chapter 4 Landscape of the Soul

HS First Year English Chapter 4 Landscape of the Soul. Important questions for HS First Year English Questions Answers brings you latest queries and solutions with accordance to the most recent pointers NCERT. Students will clear all their doubts with regard to every chapter by active these necessary chapter queries and elaborate explanations that area unit provided by our specialists so as to assist you higher. These queries can facilitate students prepare well for the exams thanks to time constraint. HS First Year English Chapter 4 Landscape of the Soul

HS First Year English Chapter 4 Landscape of the Soul

(Questions and Answers)

Q.1.(i) Contrast the Chinese view of art with the European view with examples. 

Ans. The Chinese view of art is quite different from the European view of art both in content and concept. A classical Chinese landscape is not meant to reproduce an actual view of the physical world. The painter expects active participation of the viewer. The participation of the viewer should be both physical and mental. The Chinese painter does not expect his viewer to borrow his eyes to appreciate his painting. Instead he wants the viewer to devote his mind and soul. The artist shows the way to the mysterious inner world. A Chinese landscape is an inner one, a spiritual and conceptual space.

On the other hand European art is based on hard realism. The European painter simply reproduces in his painting the outer appearance of the objects as he sees it. He wants the viewer of his creation to borrow his eyes so that it could be properly appreciated. He presents the picture of a landscape as he sees it. He does not explore the inner aspects of the things as has been done by the Chinese painter. The Chinese landscape is a symbolic representation of reality. Contrary to it a European painting is a figurative one.

(ii) Explain the concept of Shanshui. 

Ans. In the Chinese painting the landscape is an inner one a spiritual and a conceptual space. This concept is called shanshui. Shanshui literally means ‘mountain-water’. Mountain and water together represent the word landscape. They are not more images of two elements. They represent two complimentary poles reflecting the Daoist view of the universe. The mountain is Yang. It stands vertically towards heaven. It is stable, warm and dry in the sun. Yin is water. It stays horizontally resting on the earth, fluid, moist and cool. Yin represents the feminine force and ‘Yang’ the masculine force of the universe. The interaction of Yin and Yang is the fundamental idea of daoism. In this respect the middle void is also important. The interaction of Yin and Yang take place in the middle void. Nothing can happen without it. This can be compared with pranayama in yogic practice. It is a system of breath in suspension of breath and breathing out. The white unpainted space in the Chinese landscape is significant in the middle void.

Q.2. (i) What do you understand by the terms ‘autsider art’ and ‘art brut’ or ‘raw art’? 

Ans. Jean Dubuffet, the French Painter mooted the concept of ‘art brut’ or ‘raw art’ in the 1940s. It was the art of the untrained visionary. This genre or form of art is described as the art of those who have no right to be artists as they have no formal training but show talent and artistic insight. Their artistic creations are a stimulating contrast to a lot of mainstream offerings. The notion of ‘art brut’ or ‘raw art’ was of works that were in their raw state. Anything, however small or insignificant it may be could be the material for a work of art. It may be a tin, a sink or a broken car. Nek Chand of India has taken this form of art to a great-height. 

(ii) Who was the ‘untutored genius who created a paradise’ and what is the nature of his contribution to art?

Ans. Nek Chand of India is the ‘untutored genius’ referred to here. He had created a paradise, the rock garden at Chandigarh. His raw materials were stone and recycled things. He is an expert in ‘sculpted art’. He used recycled material to create the rock garden at Chandigarh. He used most insignificant objects like a tin or a sink or such other things. Nek Chand has taken this form to a great height. The Swiss commission for UNESCO honoured him by holding a five months long interactive show. Realms of Nek Chand’. Nek Chand’s happiness lies in the fact that people enjoy his creation.

Talking About the Text

Q. Discuss the following statements in groups of four :

1. The emperor may rule over the territory he has conquered, but only the artist knows the way within.”

Ans.

Group A: The statement is true. The emperor as a ruler rules over a territory he has conquered. But only an artist knows the world of the mind.

Group B: The artist knows the spirit of man, the world within.

Group A: The emperor may rule territory and the people.

Group B: The artist enters the hearts and souls of the people.

Group A: The classical Chinese painting is unique in this regard.

Group B: you are right. The Chinese landscape is not a real one. It is different from European figurative painting. The difference of concept of the Chinese and the European artists is evident.

Group A: European concept is based on delicate realism”, on the external views of the things presented by the artist. 

Group B: The Chinese painter showed the king a cave in the painting. The entrance to the cave opens at the clapping of the artist. 

Group A: The artist proposed to show the emperor the cave. He enters the cave and the painting vanished from the wall. 

Group B: The artist was never again seen in this world.

Group A: In the Chinese landscape simply appreciates the external beauty reflected by the painting.

Group B The painting disappeared with the painter, the artist.

Disappearing with the painting the artist has risen above material exist ence. He proves that art is superior to material prosperity. 

2. “The landscape is an inner one, a spiritual and conceptual space.” 

Ans.

Group A: The landscape is an inner one, a spiritual and conceptual space. The statement is true in relation to Chinese painting.

Group B: Definitely, a Chinese landscape is a spiritual experience. 

Group A: The idea of art is pole apart in China and Europe.

Group B: In Europe the concept of art is based on delicate realism, on the external appearance of the things.

Group A: Yes the landscape, in an European painting is the image of a real landscape, the mere external appearance of the visual objects.

Group B: Contrary to European art form, the landscape in a Chinese painting is symbolic one. It is a conceptual space.

Group A: In a Chinese painting the viewer is expected to involve himself both physically and mentally. 

Group B: It remains a fact that a figurative painting produced in Europe the viewer is to depend on the eyes of the artist. 

Group A: A Chinese artists explores the spiritual and the conceptual space more than anything material.

Thinking About language

1. Find out the correlates of Yin and Yang in other cultures 

Ans. Please try it yourself.

2. What is the language spoken in Flanders? 

Ans. Dutch is spoken in Flanders.

Working with words

I. The following common words are used in more than one sense :

panel studio   brush   essence   material

Examine the following sets of sentences to find out what the words ‘panel’ and ‘essence’ mean in different context: 

1.(i) The masks from Bawa village in Mali look like long panels of decorated wood. 

(ii) Judge H. Hobart Grooms told the jury panel he had heard the reports. 

(iii) The panel is laying the groundwork for an international Treaty.

(iv) The glass panels of the window were broken. 

(v) Through the many round tables, workshops and panel discussions a consensus was reached.

(vi) The sink in the hinged panel above the bunk drains into the head.

2. (i) Their repetitive structure must have taught the people around the great composer the essence of music.

(ii) Part of the answer is in the proposition; but the essence is in the 

(iii) The implications of these schools of thought are of practical es meaning essence for the teacher. 

(iv) They had added vanilla essence to the pudding.

Ans.The following are the different meanings of the word panel:

I. 1. (i) ‘panels of decorated wood’, means long or square piece of wood.

(ii) ‘Jury panel’ means members of the jury (judges)

(iii) ‘panel’ means a team or group of experts. (iv) ‘glass panels’ means pieces of glass forming the part of and fitted to a window frame.

(v) ‘panel discussion’ means group discussion. 

(vi) ‘Hinged panel’ means a frame on which instruments are fitted.

2. (i) Essence of music means the spirit or the actual quality of music. 

(ii) Essence here means the sum total of something.

(iii) practical essence means real significance. (iv) Here essence means smell and taste of vanilla.

II. Now find five sentences each for the rest of the words to show the different senses in which each of them is used.

Ans. Studio

(i) He is a worker in LILY photography studio. (ii) Actors are dressing in the studio.

(iii) The kapoor family has a studio of their own.

(iv) The music is being recorded in the studio.

(v) The painter is working in his studio.

Material

(i) India is an exporter of raw material.

(ii) This company produces construction materials

(iii) The band repeated the old material..

(iv) Teachers should use teaching materials in lower classes.

(v) She is collecting materials for her new novel.

(vi) This dress is made of tough material.

Brush

(i) Hair brush is a common household item. 

(ii) Doy you brush your teeth every morning and evening?

(iii) She brushed the dust off from her clock. 

(iv) The woman received a brush of his teeth on her cheek.

(v) The secretary had a nasty brush with the supervision. 

Noticing Form:

  • A classical Chinese landscape is not meant to reproduce an actual view as would a figurative western painting. 
  • Whereas the European painter wants you to borrow his eyes and look at a particular landscape exactly as he saw it, from a specific angle, the Chinese painter does not choose a single view point. The above two examples are ways in which contrasts may be expressed.

Combine the following sets of ideas to show the contrasts between them. 

1.(i) European art tries to achieve a perfect, illusionistic likeness.

(ii) Asian art tries to capture the essence of inner life and spirits.

2.(i) The Emperor commissions a painting and appreciates its outer appearance

(ii) The artist reveals to him the true meaning of his work. 

3.(i) The Emperor may rule over the territory he has conquered.

(ii) The artist knows the way within.

Ans. 1. Whereas the Asian art tries to capture the essence of inner life, the European art tries to achieve a perfect, illusionistic likeness. The figurative painting of Europe reproduces the outer appearance of the things, but the Asian art form tries to explore the inner life or the conceptual space.

2. Whereas the Emperor is satisfied with the appreciation of the visible or outer appearance of the painting, it is the artist, the painter who reveals to him the true meaning of his work. He shows the emperor the way within.

3. The Emperor may rule over the territory he has conquered. His objective is to keep the territory under control. But the artist is concerned with the world of ideas or concept. Therefore, it is he who knows the way within. He himself remained absorbed in a world of ideas of which the Emperor does not bother much.

Things to do:

1. Find out about as many Indian schools of painting as  you can. Write a short note on the distinctive features of each school.

Ans. Some of the established schools of painting are: 

(i) Mural Paintings of Ajanta: The wall paintings of Ajanta are about 1500 ve old. They remain specimen of Indian art that flourished long ago. The main features of the paintings, specially those depicting women are their sharp facial features, exaggerated size and shape of the breasts and thin waine. The natural but lasting colours, still glittering special a feature of the cave paintings.

(ii) Mughal School of painting: Mughal school of painting evolved during the sixteenth century in the royal court of Emperor Akbar. During the reign of Emperor Jahangir this school of painting attained its best stage. Depiction of war scenes, scenes of love making, images of landscape, and the images of the countries and the great warriors were the main features of this school of painting, Rajasthani school of painting is much indebted to the Mughal school.

(iii) ‘Phari’ Miniatures: ‘Phari’ school is famous for miniature painting. This school has its distinctive features. However ‘phari’ school draws its inspiration from the Mughal school of painting. 

2. Find out about experiments in recycling in environmental conservation :

Ans. Recycling is primarily concerned with the waste products and garbage. It is a modern technological system. Formerly there was no scope of recycling. The result was that the waste product and garbage rotted and stank which in turn polluted the atmosphere. With the help of recycling, garbage are converted to manure or other substances which are eco-friendly and not harmful to the environment. In some advanced countries all the garbage are recycled. India, however, is lagging behind in introducing recycling methods. As a result people have been compelled to live in polluted environments. Wide use of plastic and polythene bags etc. have increased the hazards of pollution. Nek Chand the Indian propagator of ‘art brut’ or ‘outsider art’ has shown how recycled materials could be used to create things of art such as the statues in the rock garden at Chandigarh.

Additional Questions and Answers

Q.1. Who was Wu Daozi?

Ans. Wu Daozi was a Chinese painter of the eighth century.

Q.2. What was Wu Daozis’ last painting?

Ans. Wu Daozi’s last painting was a landscape.

Q.3. Who commissioned the last painting of Wu Daozi? 

Ans. Emperor Xuan Zong of the Tang dynasty commissioned the last painting of Daozi.

Q.4. What did the Emperor discover in Wu Daozis last painting? 

Ans. In Wu Daozis last painting the Emperor discovered forests, high mountains, waterfalls, clouds floating in the vast sky, men on hilly path and birds in flight.

Q.5. What happened to the painter Wu Daozi at last?

Ans. Wu Daozi clapped his hands. The entrance of the cave opened. Wu Daozi entered the cave. Then he along with the painting vanished. 

Q.6. How was Daozi’s last painting kept and where was it kept?

Ans. The last painting of Daozi was kept under a veil so that none but the emperor could see it. It was kept on a wall as a decorative piece. 

Q.7. Why would not the painter draw the eye of the dragon he had painted?

Ans. The painter would not draw the eye of the dragon because he feared that it would fly away from the painting.

Q.8. Who was Quinten Metsys?

Ans. Quinten Metsys was a black smith who later became a painter of his age.

Q.9. What does the word ‘Dao’ mean? 

Ans. ‘Dao’ means both path or the method and the mysterious works of the universe.

Q.10. What does ‘Shanshui’ literally mean?

Ans. Shanshui literally means mountain-water which collectively represent the word “landscape”.

Q.11. What does the writer mean by the term ‘the eye of the landscape’?

Ans. Man is the ‘eye of the landscape. He is the conduit of communication between Heaven and Earth.

Q.12. Who is Jean Dubuffet?

Ans. Jean Dubuffet is a French painter.

Q.13. What is meant by “art brut”?

Ans. ‘Art brut’ was mooted by the French painter Jean Dubuffet. It is the art of the untrained visionary. 

Q.14. ‘An untutored genius was creating paradise.”Who is the untutored genius?

Ans. Nek Chand is the untutored genius.

Q.15. What is ‘Raw Vision’? 

Ans. Raw Vision is a UK based magazine. It is a pioneer in outsider art publication.

Short Answer Type Questions and Answers

Q.1. Who is Wu Daozi? What was his last painting about? 

Ans.Wu Daozi was a famous Chinese painter of the eighth century. His last painting was a landscape depicting a wonderful scene. The painting showed forests, high mountains, waterfalls, clouds floating in an immense sky, men on hilly paths and birds in flight. There was also an image of a cave in it. 

Q.2. Write a brief note on the last painting of Wu Daozi.

Ans. Wu Daozi’s last painting was commissioned by the Chinese Emperor Xuanzong to decorate his palace wall. The painting was kept hidden under a veil, so that only the Emperor could see it. It depicted the images of various natural objects. They were highly satisfied with the wonderful scenery. The painter showed the Emperor a cave and told that there lived a spirit in it. The painter wanted to show the Emperor the way to the cave. He clapped his hands. The entrance opened. The painter entered the cave and the door closed behind him. Just then the painting vanished leaving no trace of it on the wall.

Q.3.”…….. and the artist was not seen again in this world.” How did the artist disappear?

Ans. Wu Daozi, the Chinese painter, had drawn a wonderful painting that the Emperor Xuanzong commissioned to decorate a palace wall. The painting was kept hidden under a veil so that only the Emperor could see it. The painter showed the Emperor a cave at the foot of the mountain. He told the Emperor that a spirit lived in the cave. He clapped his hands and the door of the cave opened. He then told the emperor that the inside of the cave was splendid. He proposed to show the Emperor the way to the cave. The painter entered the cave and the door closed behind him. To the sur prise of the Emperor the cave and the painter vanished leaving no trace of the painter’s brush.

Q.4. Who was Wu Daozi? What did he paint for the Emperor?

Ans. Wu Daozi was a eighth century Chinese painter. He drew a landscape ‘on which images of forests, high mountains, waterfalls, clouds floating in an immense sky, men on hilly paths and birds in flight were painted. The Emperor Xuanzong commissioned it to decorate a palace wall. It was a wonderful painting.

Q.5. ‘Let me show your majesty the way.” What happened when his majesty was shown the way?

Ans. The painter Wu Daozi clapped his hands. The door of the cave opened. He told the painter that the inside of the cave was splendid. He proposed to show the emperor the way. Then he entered the cave and the door closed behind him. Before the Emperor could move or say anything the painting vanished. Neither the painter nor the painting could be seen. No trace of the painting remained on the wall.

Q.6. What happened when Wu Daozi clapped his hands? 

Ans. The painter Wu Daozi clapped his hands. The door of the cave opened. He told the painter that the inside of the cave was splendid. He proposed to show the emperor the way. Then he entered the cave and the door closed behind him. Before the Emperor could move or say anything the painting vanished. Neither the painter nor the painting could be seen. No trace of the painting remained on the wall.

Q.7. Who wrote such stories for Chinese Classical education. What role did they play?

Ans. Confucius, the great religious Philosopher of China and Zhuangzi wrote such stories for Chinese Classical education. They helped the master in guiding his disciple in the right direction. They also reveal the spirit of Chinese painting and art.

HORNBILL PROSE & POETRY

Sl. No.LessonLink
1The Portrait of a LadyClick here
2A PhotographClick here
3“We’re Not Afraid to Die…
If We Can All Be Together”
Click here
4Discovering Tut: The Saga ContinuesClick here
5The Laburnum TopClick here
6Landscape of the soulClick here
7The Voice of the RainClick here
8The Ailing planet:
The Green Movement’s Role
Click here
9The Browning VersionClick here
10ChildhoodClick here
11The AdventureClick here
12Silk RoadClick here
13My Impressions of AssamClick here
14Father to SonClick here

SNAPSHOTS

Sl. No.LessonLink
1The Summer of the Beautiful White HorseClick here
2The AddressClick here
3Ranga’s MarriageClick here
4Albert Einstein at SchoolClick here
5Mother’s DayClick here
6The Ghat of the Only WorldClick here
7BirthClick here
8The Tale of Melon CityClick here

Q.8. Why would the painter not draw the eye of the dragon he had painted?

Ans. The author mentions another story about a painter. He had painted a dragon. But he would not draw its eye because he feared that once the eye was drawn it would fly away from the painting. This story reveals the spirit of the Chinese art that explored conceptual space. 

Q.9. Which story does the author consider most representative of western painting?

Ans. In the fifteenth century there lived in Antwerp a master black smith named Quinten Metsys. He fell in love with a painter’s daughter. The father of the girl would not accept a son-in-law in that profession. Quinten stealthily entered the studio of the painter and drew a fly on his last panel. The fly was drawn with such delicate realism that the painter wanted to swat it away as he thought it to be a real fly. Quinten was immediately admitted as an apprentice into his studio. He married his beloved and in course of time became one of the most famous painters of his age. This story illustrates a perfect illusionistic likeness that it is trying to achieve. 

Q.10. What did Daozi want to reveal to the Emperor through his painting?

Ans. Daozi’s painting was highly appreciated by the Chinese Emperor, Xuanzong. But he could appreciate only the outer appearance of the landscape. In this context the writer has observed that an Emperor may rule over a territory he has conquered. But only an artist knows the inner meaning of it. In the case of the Chinese painting the artist revealed to him the true meaning of his work. He proposed to show the king the way inside, the mysterious works of the universe. The painting had vanished from the palace wall but the artist had reached his goal. He went beyond the material appearances. 

Q.11. Explain the concept ‘Shanshui’ What do ‘Yang ‘and Yin’ represent? Or, What are ‘Yang and Yin’?

Ans. Shanshui literally means ‘mountain-water’ which together represent the word ‘landscape’. They are more than two elements of an image. They represent two complimentary poles, reflecting the Daoist view of the universe. Yang represents the mountain reaching vertically towards Heaven. It is stable, warm, and dry in the sun. Yin represents water. It is horizontal, wad resting on earth, fluid, moist and cool. Yin is the receptive feminine aspect of universal energy. Its counterpart Yang is masculine. Thus shanshui may be called a spiritual explanation of the material aspects of the natural world.

Q.12. Explain the significance of the third element or the Middle void. 

Ans. While Yang and Yin represent two complementary poles of the universe, there is a Middle void existing between the poles. Interaction of Yang and Yin takes place in the Middle void. This interaction can be compared with the yogic practice of pranayama the system of breath inhaled- breath retained and breath released, Meditation occurs only when the breath is retained in suspension. There lies the significance of the Middle void.

Q.13. Contrast the features of Chinese and European art forms.

Ans. In a Chinese landscape the artist is concerned with the conceptual space and less with its outer appearance. The artist shows the way inside. Thus a classical landscape is not a real one and one may enter if from any point. A figurative painting of Europe is a mere image of the outer appearance of the things. It reflects delicate realism. It is not concerned with the inner conceptual space. To appreciate it one must borrow the eyes of the artist.

Q.14. Assess the importance of Man in the landscape. 

Ans. While Yang and Yin represent the two complimentary poles of the universe, man stands as a communicative conduit between the poles. He stands as a medium of communication between Heaven and Earth. So his presence is essential. He is not a dwarf standing before the lofty peaks. Actually he remains the eye of the world.“

Q.15. What is Daoism and what is its fundamental notion?

Ans. Mountain -water’ used together to represent the landscape. They are more than two mere images. They represent the two complementary poles, the Heaven and the earth. According to the Daoist view of the universe, the mountain is Yang. It stands vertically towards Heaven. It is stable, warm and dry in the sun. The water is Yin. It represents the earth. It is fluid, moist and cool. It represents the feminine force of universal energy. Yang represents the masculine force. The interaction of Yang and Yin is the fundamental notion Daoism

Q.16. ‘This is also where Man finds a fundamental role. Explain. (or) Where does Man find a fundamental role and how? 

Ans. While Yang and Yin represent the two complimentary poles of the universe, man stands as a communicative conduit between the poles. He stands as a medium of communication between Heaven and Earth. So his presence is essential. He is not a dwarf standing before the lofty peaks. Actually he remains the eye of the world.“

Q.17. How did the theory of “brut art’ put forward by Jean Dubffet getcredence?

Ans. ‘Art-brut’ or ‘raw art’ is also known as ‘outsider art’. It is a growing area of contemporary art. It is the art of the untrained genius. For these artist anything from a tin to a sink can be raw material for artistic creation.

  The French painter Jean Dubuffet is the first propagator of this art form. He started it in the 1940s as the art of the untrained visionaries. Nek Chand is the principal follower of this art form in India.

Q.18. Assess Nek Chand’s contribution to ‘outsider art’. 

Ans. During 1940s when Jean Dubuffet was propounding his art brut, Nek Chand an ‘untutored genius was creating paradise’. Nek Chand is treated as the greatest contributor to outsider art. He created the Rock Garden at Chandigarh using stone and recycled materials. Anything from a tin to a sink can be the raw material for artistic creation. The Swiss Commission for UNESCO recognised Nek Chand’s contribution ‘as an outstanding testimony of the difference a single man can make when he lives in his dream. He has raised outsider art to a great height..

Q.19. What does the writer say about ‘Realm of Nek Chand’.

Ans. ‘Realm of Nek Chand’ was a five months long interactive show, Beginning in October it was scheduled for five months. It would be held at leading museums in Switzerland, Belgium, France and Italy. That was the biggest international recognition given to Nek Chand.

Long Answer Type Questions and Answers

Q.1. Describe Wu Daozi’s wonderful tale? What does the tale signify about Chinese art and painting? Or, Describe the story of Wu Daozi. What message does the story convey? 

Ans. Wu Daozi is an eighth century Chinese painter. A wonderful tale is told about him. Daozi’s last painting was a landscape commissioned by the Tang Emperor Xuanzong of China. It was used to decorate a palace wall. The painting was kept veiled so that none but the Emperor could see it. The Emperor highly praised the wonderful painting. The landscape reflected the images of forests, mountains, waterfalls, men on mountain paths, clouds sailing in the immense sky and birds in flight. Then the painter showed the Emperor a cave at the foot of the mountain. He clapped his hands and the door of the cave opened. He offered to show the Emperor the way. She painter entered the cave, the door closed behind him and to the surprise of the Emperor the painting vanished from the wall. The artist was never again seen.

The story of Wu Daozi and such other stories reveal the true nature of Chinese Classical art. In Daozi’s story the Emperor praises only the outer appearance of the painting. It is the artist who reveals to him the true meaning of his work and its significance. Only the artist knows the way within.

Q.2. Write a note on the Daoist concept of Shanshui and the Daoist view of the universe.

Ans. Shanshui is the Daoist view of the universe. Shanshui literally means ‘mountain water’ which together represent the word landscape. These are not more images of two elements.

They represent two complementary poles, reflecting the Daoist view of the universe. The mountain is Yang and the water is Yin. The mountain reaches towards Heaven. It stands vertically. It is stable, warm and dry in the sun. Water rests horizontally on earth. It is fluid, moist and cool. It is the receptive feminine aspect of universal energy. Its counterpart Yang is masculine and active.

The interaction of Yang and Yin is the fundamental notion of Daoism. Yang is masculine and Yin is the feminine force. The third essential element is the Middle void. Interaction takes place in the Middle void. Hence it cannot be overlooked. The Middle void is compared with the yogic act of pranayama- an exercise of breath in-retention of breath and breathe out. Meditation occurs in the state of breath retention. Man is the conduit between Heaven and Earth in the Daoist view. He has been called “the eye of the universe.’

Q.3. How does the writer point out the difference between the Chinese concept of art and the European concept of art?

or, “The Chinese concept of art and painting is different from the west- ern figurative painting” Explain.

Ans. Definitely the Chinese concept of art is quite different from the western figurative painting. Chinese art and European art represent two different concepts. The Chinese landscape is an inner one. It represents a spiritual and conceptual space. On the other hand western figurative painting is the representation of the physical aspect of things. It tries to achieve a perfect illusionistic likeness. It does not explore the inner world of man.

Wu Daozi’s story is illustrative of Chinese painting. The painter poses to show the emperor the way. A classical landscape is not a mere image of reality. It does not reproduce the actual view. It is a conceptual space. On the other hand the story of Quinten Metsys is representative of western painting. Quinten painted fly with perfect illusionistic likeness. The fly is not a real one but its image creates an illusion of being real. Thus a European painter wants his viewers to borrow his eyes to appreciate his painting. But a Chinese painter allows freedom to his viewers.

Q.4. What is the story from Flanders as mentioned by the writer and how is it representative of western painting?

Ans. Quinten Metsys, a master blacksmith, lived in Antwerp. He fell in love with the daughter of a famous painter. However, the painter would not like to accept a son-in-law in such a profession. At this Quinten Metsys stealthily entered the studio of the painter and drew a fly in his last panel. The fly was painted with delicate realism. The painter thought it to be a real fly and tried to swat it away. Then only he realised that it was a piece of good artistic creation. He was highly impressed, admitted Quinten as an apprentice. Quinten married his beloved woman and became a famous painter of his time..

Quinten Metsy’s painting is representative of western painting because it represents the perfect illusionistic likeness. The fly painted by Quinten created an illusion as a result of which the painter thought it to be a real fly. Thus the landscape in a European painting is a figurative one. It expresses the external view of things. Thus the story of Quinten Metsy’s may be called a representative one of western painting.

Q.5. Write a note on ‘art brut’ and ‘outsider art’ with special reference to Nek Chand’s achievements in the world of art. 

Ans.‘Art brut ‘or ‘raw art’ was mooted by the French painter Jean Dubuffet in the 1940s. It was the art of the untrained visionary. ‘Outsider art’ is art of those who had no right to be artists because they have no formal training on the subject. Some such persons having no formal training proved themselves as untrained genius because they had artistic insight. Their works offer a striking contrast to the works of the trained and professional artists.

Nek Chand is an Indian. He is an untutored genius in outsider art and is regarded as India’s biggest contributor to outsider art. The notion of outsider art is best reflected in the Rock Garden at Chandigarh. It is a garden sculptured with stone and recycled material. As an ‘outsider art’ activist he uses such ordinary things as a tin or a sink as raw materials for his artistic creations. He has been able to achieve international acclamation by dint of his artistic creations.

Summary of the piece

Wu Daozi was a Chinese painter who lived in the eighth century. A wonderful tale is told about him. His last painting was a landscape. It was commissioned by the Tang emperor Xuanzong to decorate a palace well. The master had hidden his painting behind a screen, so that only the emperor could see it. The painting showed forests, high mountains, waterfalls, clouds sailing in an immense sky, men on hilly paths, birds in flight and a cave. For a long while the emperor admired the wonderful scenery. The painter asked the emperor to look at the cave at the foot of the mountain. He added that a spirit lived in that cave. Then the painter clapped his hands and the entrance to the cave opened. He added that the inside of the cave was very beautiful, beyond anything words could convey. He proposed to show the way to his majesty, the emperor. The painter entered the cave and the entrance closed behind him. The emperor was astonished. Before he could. move or utter a word the painting vanished from the wall. No mark of Wu Daozi’s brush was left and the artist was never seen again in this world. Such stories played an important part in China’s classical education. The books of Confucius and Zhuangzi are full of such stories. They helped the master in guiding his disciple in the right direction. Beyond the anecdote, they deeply reveal the spirit in which art was considered. Contrast this story or another famous story about a painter. The painter would not draw the eye of a dragon he had painted. He feared that after he drew the eye the dragon would fly away from the painting. Contrast this story or the former one with an old story from Flanders, the native land of the writer. He found this story most representative of western painting..

In fifteenth century Antoerp, a master black smith named Quinten Metsys fell in love with a painter’s daughter. The father would not accept a son-in-law in such profession. So Quinten sneaked into the painter’s studio. He painted a fly on his latest panel with such delicate realism that the painter tried to drive it away before he knew what had happened. Quinten was immediately admitted as an apprentice into studio. He married his beloved and proceeded to become one of the most famous painter of his age. These two stories explains what each form of art is trying to achieve. There is a perfect illusionistic likeness in Europe, the essence of inner life and spirit in Asia.

In the Chinese story the emperor commissions a painting and praises its outer appearance. But the artist reveals to him the true meaning of his work. The emperor may reign over a territory he had conquered, but only the artist knows the way within. ‘Let me show you the way’. ‘Dao’ is a word that means both the path or method and the mysterious works of the universe. The painting was gone but the artist had reached his goal-beyond anything material or beyond any material appearance.

A classical Chinese landscape is not meant to reproduce an actual view as would a western figurative painting. The European painter wants the viewer to barrow his eyes and look at a particular landscape, exactly as he saw it, from a fixed angle. On the other hand a Chinese painter does not choose a single view point. His landscape is not a real one and the viewer cannot enter it from any point. The artists creates a path for your eyes to travel up and down and then back again in a leisurely movement. This is even more true in horizontal scroll. In this the action of slowly opening one section of the painting, then rolling it up to move on to the other, adds a dimension of time which is unknown in any other form of painting. It also demands active participants of the viewer, who decides at what pace he will travel through the painting. Such participation is both physical and mental. The Chinese painter does not want the viewer to borrow his eyes. He wants the viewer to enter his mind. The landscape is an inner one. It is a spiritual and conceptual space. This concept is known as shanshui which literally means mountain water. Mountain and water used together represent the word landscape. More than two elements of an image. These represent two complementary poles reflecting daoist view of the universe. The mountain is yang. It reaches vertically towards Heaven. It is stable, warm and dry in the sun. Water is yin. It rests on the earth horizontally. It is fluid, moist and cool. The interaction of vin, the receptive feminine aspect of universal energy and its counterpart yang, active and masculine is of course a fundamental idea of Daoism. An essential third element is often overlooked. It is the middle void where the interaction of yang and yin takes place. This can be compared with the yogic practice of pranayama. It is an exercise of breath in retain-breath out. Her suspension of breath is the void where meditation occurs. The middle void is essential because nothing can happen without it. Hence the importance of the white the unpainted space in the Chinese landscape.

This is where man finds a fundamental role. In that space between heaven and earth he becomes the conduit of communication between both poles of the universe. His presence is essential, even if it is only suggested. Far from being lost or oppressed by the lofty peaks he is the eye of the landscape’ as has been so called by Francois Cheng.

Getting inside Outsider Art

The French painter Jean Dubuffet mooted the concept of ‘art brut’ in the 1940s and the art of the untrained visionary was of minority interests. ‘Outsider art’ had a humble beginning. But it became a fastest growing area of interest in contemporary art. Now it has gained an international reputation.

*Outsider art has become known as the art of those who have no right to be artists as they have received no formal training yet show talent and artistic insight. Their works are a stimulating contrast to a lot of mainstream offerings. and that time Dubuffet was propounding his concept. In India an untutored genius was creating paradise.” Years ago the little patch of jungle that he began clearing to make himself a garden sculptured with stone and recycled material is known to the world to day as the rock garden at Chandigarh.

The creator of the Rock Garden and its director Nek Chand is 80 years old. He is regarded as the biggest contributor to outsider art. The 15 th issue (spring 2005) of Raw vision, a U.K. based magazine featured Nek Chand and his rock garden sculpture, women by the waterfall on its anniversary issues’s cover. The notion of ‘art brut’ or ‘raw art’ was of works that were in their raw state as regards cultural and artistic influences. Anything, however insignificant may be the material for work of art. Nek Chand has taken ‘raw art’ to its height. Recognising his art as “an outstanding testimony of the difference a single man can make when he lives in his dream” the swiss commission for UNESCO has decided to honour him. ‘Realm of Nek Chand’, a five month long show will be held be held in the big museums of switzerland, Belgium, France and Italy. In this context has said that the biggest reward was walking through the garden and seeing people enjoy his creation. 

This Post Has 3 Comments

Leave a Reply