HS First Year English Chapter 4 Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues :

HS First Year English Chapter 4 Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues : Important questions for HS First Year English Questions Answers brings you latest queries and solutions with accordance to the most recent pointers NCERT. Students will clear all their doubts with regard to every chapter by active these necessary chapter queries and elaborate explanations that area unit provided by our specialists so as to assist you higher. These queries can facilitate students prepare well for the exams thanks to time constraint. HS First Year English Chapter 4 Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues :

HS First Year English Chapter 4 Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues :

(Questions and Answers)

Q.1. Give reasons for the following: 

(i) King Tut’s body has been subjected to repeated scrutiny.

Ans. King Tut died very young when he was only a teenager. He died unexpectedly. His untimely death gave rise to speculations. His mummy had been subjected to repeated scrutiny. Such repeated scrutiny had been carried out to disclose the mystery relating to his life and death.

(ii) Howard Carter’s investigation was resented. 

Ans. For the first time, in 1922 Tut’s tomb and his mummy were discovered by Howard Carter an English archaeologist. Carters investigation damaged Tut’s mummy. He chiseled out the body, severed its heads and major joints to take C.T. Scan images. Later on it was found that the breast bone and the front rib cage of the mummy were missing. Thus in the name of examining Carter did great damage to the mummy and that was why his investigation was resented. 

(iii) Carter had to chisel away the solidified resins to rise the king’s remains.

Ans. Carter opened the three nested coffin holding Tut’s mummy. When he found the mummy he ran into trouble. The ritual resins had harden cementing Tut’s mummy with the bottom of the coffin. The coffin was made of pure gold. With a view to loosening the resin he put the mummy in the scorching heat of the sun. But nothing budget. Finally he had to chisel away the solidified resins to set the mummy free for the purpose of examining it.

(iv) Tut’s body was buried along with gilded treasures. 

Ans. During Tut’s time the royals were fabulously wealthy. They also believed that they could take away the gold with them. Besides it was further believed that the brilliance of the golden artefacts guarantees re birth. Therefore, Tut’s body was buried along with gilded treasures.

(v) The boy king changed his name from Tutankhaten to Tutankhamun.

Ans. King Tut restored the worship of Amun, a major god. Amun’s images and temples had been broken earlier by king Amenhotep, who initiated the worship of Aten. Tut restored the old religion and changed his name to Tutankhamun, meaning the living image of Amun.” He did it to show respect to Amun. Thus he changed his name mainly on religious ground. 

Q. 2. (i) List the deeds that led Ray Johnson to describe Akhenaten as “wacky’.

Ans. There are sufficient reasons to call Akhenaten ‘wacky’. He was a crazy ruler. He promoted worship of Aten, the sundisk and changed his name from Amenhotep-IV to Akhenaten, meaning ‘servant of the Aten’. He shifted the religious headquarters from the old city of Thebes to the new city named Akhetaten, now known as Amaran. He broke the images of Amanda major god. He closed his temples. For such an act his Akenaten is called “wacky”.

(ii) What were the results of the C.T. Scan?

Ans. Th C.T. Scan revealed some wonderful images of Tut’s body on the computer screen. The images of his skull, ribs and hands appeared clearly which helped in solving mysteries surrounding life and death of the young king.

(iii) List the advances in technology that have improved forensic analysis. 

Ans. Technology has advanced a lot to help forensic analysis easier. CT. or Computerised tomography is employed to take hundreds of x-rays in cross section. Their x-rays are put together like slices of bread to create a three dimensional virtual body. Such advances have been made in technol ogy. 

(iv) Explain the statement, “King Tut is one of the first mummies to be scanned-in death, as in life…..”

Ans. Undoubtedly king Tut’s mummy is one of the first mummies to be scanned. The purpose of the C.T. Scan was to reveal how and when the boy king had died. The aim of scanning was to disclose the mystery about his death. Another aim of the C.T. Scan was to find out Tut’s age at the time of his death.

Talking about the text

Discuss the following in groups of two pairs, each pair in a group taking opposite points of view:

1. Scientific intervention is necessary to unearth buried mysteries.

2. Advanced technology gives us conclusive evidence of past events.

3. Traditions, rituals and funerary practices must be respected.

4. Knowledge about the past is useful to complete our knowledge of the world we live in.

Ans. Students are divided as under.

Thinking About Language

Q.1. Read the following piece of information from the Encyclopedia of Language by David Crystal :

Ans. Egyptian is now extinct: its history dates from before the third millennium BC. preserved in many hieroglyphic inscriptions and papyrus manuscripts. Around the second century A.D. it developed into a language known as coptic. Coptic may still have been used as late as the early nineteenth century and is still used as a religious language by Monophysite christians in Egypt.

Q.2. What do you think are the reasons for the extinction of languages? 

Ans. Life of any language depends on its use and practice. A language lives so long it continues to be.spoken by sections or sections of people However changed situations in course of time may make a language extinct. Migration of new people, colonization of an area and such other factors are responsible for extinction of knowledge. For example sanskrit, pali, prakrit are almost extinct in India.

Q.3. Do you think it is important to preserve languages? 

Ans. Languages should be preserved. They symbolise the progress and evolution of human civilization. Languages are the medium of expression of human thought and they are also the medium of conversation and exchanging ideas. They bear the mark of sophistication or coarseness of people who use them. Naturally they provide clues to the standard of progress attained by people in some certain age. Therefore, they must be preserved as far as possible.

Q.4. In what ways, do you think we could help prevent the extinction of languages and dialects?

Ans. Extinction of languages can be prevented primarily by trying to keep them alive. The best way is to study the ancient languages and dialects. Preservation of books and manuscripts also help in this regard because they provide the specimen of old languages presently not in vogue.

Working with words

Q.1. Given below are some interesting combinations of words. Explain why they have been used together. 

(I) ghostly dust devils

(ii) desert sky

(iii) stunning artefacts

(iv) funerary treasures

(v) scientific detachment

(vi) dark bellied clouds

(vii) casket grey

(viii) eternal brilliance

(ix) ritual resins 

(x) virtual body

Ans. Combinations of some specific words are used to produce special effects. They are used as ornaments to enrich the language as well as to convey the desired meaning. Words are expressive of some specific ideas. Such a combination of words adds to musical and visual effects. They also. carry deeper meaning in a wider context. For example the combination ‘ghostly dust devils’ convey the idea of an atmosphere covered with dust that is in no way better than ghosts and devils. In the same manner ‘funerary treasures brings to the mind the rich items offered to a dead person at the time of his burial.

2. Here are some commonly used medical terms. Find out thin meanings :

C.T. scanMRItomography
autopsydialysisE.C.G
post mortemangiographybiopsy

Ans. C.T. scan: C.T. Scan or computed tomography is a medical technology. In this technique hundreds of x-rays in cross sections are used to create three dimensional images of the body.

Autopsy: Autopsy is a method used in post mortem examination done on a dead body to determine the cause of death.

Post mortem : Post mortem is examination done on a dead body by medical experts.

MRI: MRI is magnetic resonance imaging. It is a method in which strong magnetic field is used to produce an image of the inside of a person’s body. 

Dialysis: Dialysis is a method of purifying the blood in a person’s body by filtering it through a membrane.

Angiography: Angiography is radiography of blood or lymph vessels. 

ECG: ECG is Electrocardiogram. It is a medical technology applied to study heart beats of a person. 

Biopsy: Biopsy is medical examination of tissues taken from a living body.

Things to do

1. The constellation Orion is associated with the legend of Osiris, the god of afterlife. Find out the astronomical descriptions and legends associated with the following:

(i) Ursa Major (Septarshi mandala)

(ii) Polaris (Dhruba tara)

(iii) Pegasus (winged horse)

(iv) Sirius (dog star) 

(v) Gamini (Mithuna)

Ans. 1 (i) Ursa Major (saptarshi mandala) is a group of seven bright stars. They are circumpolar and they can be seen all night from northern latitudes. According to Indian mythology the seven stars are associated with seven great sages including Vasishtha, Viswamitra and Pulastya.

(ii) Polaris (Dhruba tara): Indian mythology associates Polaris with the legend of Dhruba. It is the brightest star in the Ursa Major and is 680 light years away from earth. This star remains in a fixed position over the northern hemisphere.

(iii) Pagasus (winged horse): Pegasus is associated with Greek mythology. It is the winged horse of the Muses.

(iv) Sirius (Dog star): Sirius is in the constellation named Canis major. It is 8.7 light years away from earth. It appears as the brightest star with its bluish white hue. 

(v) Gemini (Mithuna): Gemini is a part of the constellation of the Jodiac. Castor and Pollux are the two stars forming Gemini.

2. Some of the leaves and flowers mentioned in the passage for adorning the deal are willow, olive, celery, lotus, and cornflower. Which of these are common in our country? 

Ans. Among the flowers mentioned above lotus and cornflower are quite common in our country (India) 

3. Name some leaves and flowers that are used as adornments in our country.

Ans. Leaves commonly used as adornments in India are: Mango, banana, peepal, date etc.. Flowers commonly used as adornments are: rose, marigold, jasmine. lotus and varieties of seasonal flowers.

A.R. Williams

Introduction

HORNBILL PROSE & POETRY

Sl. No.LessonLink
1The Portrait of a LadyClick here
2A PhotographClick here
3“We’re Not Afraid to Die…
If We Can All Be Together”
Click here
4Discovering Tut: The Saga ContinuesClick here
5The Laburnum TopClick here
6Landscape of the soulClick here
7The Voice of the RainClick here
8The Ailing planet:
The Green Movement’s Role
Click here
9The Browning VersionClick here
10ChildhoodClick here
11The AdventureClick here
12Silk RoadClick here
13My Impressions of AssamClick here
14Father to SonClick here

SNAPSHOTS

Sl. No.LessonLink
1The Summer of the Beautiful White HorseClick here
2The AddressClick here
3Ranga’s MarriageClick here
4Albert Einstein at SchoolClick here
5Mother’s DayClick here
6The Ghat of the Only WorldClick here
7BirthClick here
8The Tale of Melon CityClick here

About the lesson:

Discovering Tut’ is an interesting saga that explores a specific part of Egyptian history. Tut was a boy king and the last heir of the royal family that ruled Egypt. He died as a teenager and as was the custom buried laden with gold. Eventually he was forgotten. In 1922 his tomb was discovered and since then the modern world has been speculating about what had happened to him. The most possible cause was thought to be murder. C.T. a scan of Tut’s mummy revealed interesting but shocking facts about him. The C.T. Scan has provided precise data for an accurate forensic reconstruction of the boyish pharaoh.

Summary of the piece in simple English

The valley of the kings in Egypt was the burial ground of the kings and the members of the royal families in ancient Egypt. The then Egyptian kings were known as Pharaoh. The mummy of king Tut was taken from his grave, the resting place for several centuries. A mummy is a dead body preserved for centuries applying some special chemical compound. Tut’s mummy had been preserved in a tomb in the valley of the kings. An angry wind stirred up fearful dust as soon as Tut’s body was taken out. All through the day dark clouds covered the desert sky. In the evening the sky remained covered with clouds keeping the stars invisible. It was 6 pm on the 5th of January 2005. The world’s most famous mummy was scanned. The C.T. Scanner had been brought there to investigate the lingering medical mysteries relating to the young ruler, Tut who had died more than 3,300 years ago.

All through the afternoon the usual tourist from around the world had descended into the tomb to pay their respect. The tomb was a rock-cut, cramped 26 feet underground structure. The tourists gazed at the artistic paintings on the walls of the tomb and they peered at Tut’s face covered with gold. They also looked with interest at the coffined shaped lid of gold. Some of the visitors read from the guide book. Yet some other visitors stood silently. Probably they were thinking about the mystery of Tut’s untimely death in his late teens. They might also be thinking with fear if the Pharaoh’s curse-death or misfortune might fall on those who disturbed him. They might have wondered if such beliefs were true or false.

Zahi Hawass, the Secretary General of Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities leaned over the body of Tut for a long first look and remarked that the mummy was in a very bad condition because of what Carter had done in 1920. Howard Carter was a British Archaeologist who discovered the tomb of Tut in 1922. It’s contents were hastily ransacked. But they were surprisingly complete. They have remained the richest royal collection ever found and have become a part of the Pharaoh’s legend. There were found inside the tomb very beautifully curved artifacts of gold. The eternal brightness of the artefacts meant to guarantee resurrection. The artefacts caused a sensation at the time of the discovery. Tut was also buried with everyday things he would want in the afterlife. There was a chessboard, a bronze razor, linen undergarments and cases of food and wine.

Carter carefully recorded the treasures given to the Pharaoh at the time of his burial. After months of that he began investing his three nested coffins. Opening the first he found a shroud decorated with garlands of willow and olive leaves, wild celery, lotus petals and cornflowers. These things stand evidence of a burial in March or April. Then he finally reached the mummy. But he was in trouble. The resins used at the ritual had hardened. It cemented Tut’s mummy to the bottom of the coffin made of solid gold. No amount of permissible force could remove them. Carter did not know what he should do.

It is very hot in the far south of Egypt. The sun can beat down like a hammer. Carter used the sun heat to loosen the resins. He kept the mummy exposed to the sun for several hours and heated it to 149 degrees Fahrenheit. Nothing budget. He reported with scientific detachment that the consolidated material had to be chiselled away from under the limbs and trunk before it was possible to raise the king’s remains.

Carter really had little choice in his defence. If he had not cut the mummy free thieves would have certainly removed the gold. During Tut’s time the royals were very rich. They thought that they could take the wealth with them. For his journey after death king Tut was lavished with bright goods, valuable chains and necklaces, bracelets, rings, amulets, a ceremonial apron, sandals, sheaths for his fingers and toes etc. The iconic inner coffin and mask were made of pure gold. Carter’s men removed the head of Tut’s mummy to separate it from his adornments. Then they severed almost all the major joints of his body. Once they had finished cutting into pieces. they resemble the body on a layer of sand in a wooden box. They put padding to hid the damage done to the body. Thus Tut was laid to rest on a

bed of sand in an iron box. During the intervening ades archaeology has changed a lot. Formerly focus on the treasures. Now focus is given more on the details of life and intriguing mysteries of death. It also uses more sophisticated tools including medical technology. In 1968 after more than 40 years of Carter’s discovery an anatomy professor x-rayed the mummy of Tut. He revealed that the back bone and front ribs of the mummy were missing…

At present diagnostic imaging can be done with computed tomography or C.T. Scan by which hundreds of X rays in cross section are put together like slices of bread to create a three dimensional virtual body. What more would a C.T. Scan reveal of Tut be better than the X-ray? And could that answer two of the biggest questions about him? The questions are how did he die and how old was he at the time of death.

King Tut’s death was a big event, even by the royal standards. He was the last king of his family’s line and his funeral was the last rattle of a dynasty. But the particulars relating to his death and aftermath are unclear.

Amenhotep III was Tut’s father or grandfather. He was a powerful Pharaoh. He reigned for four decades at the height of the eighteenth dynasty’s golden age. His son Amenhotep IV succeeded him. He initiated one of the strangest periods in the history of ancient Egypt. The new Pharaoh promoted the worship of Aten, the sun dise. He changed his name to Akhenaten or ‘servant of the Aten’. He shifted the religious capital from the old city of Thebes to the new city of Akhetaten, now known as Amarna. He shocked the country by attacking Amun, a major god. Amun’s images were smashed and temples broken. Ray Johnson, Director of the University of Chicago’s research centre at luxor said that the time Aktenaten must have been a horrible one. Luxor was the site of ancient Thebes. The family that had ruled for centuries was coming to an end when Akhonaten turned bad.

HS First Year English Hornbill Chapter 4 Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues :

Continue to Summary

After Akhenaten’s death a mysterious ruler named Smenkhkare appeared and ruled for an insignified time. Then came the very young ruler Tutankhaten to rule the country. He was widely known as king Tut. The boy king soon changed his name to Tutankhamun meaning the living image of Amun’. He overhaul a restoration of the old ways. He reigned for about nine years and died unexpectedly.

Regardless of his fame and the speculation about his fate Tut is one mummy among the many in Egypt. No one knows the number of the mummy. The Egyptian Mummy project began an inventory of the number of mummies in 2003. They counted 600 and the counting was continuing. The next phase was the scanning of the mummies. A portable C.T. the machine was donated by the National Geographic Society and Siemens, its manufacturer. Tut’s mummy was one of the first mummies to be scanned. Thus Tut was moving ahead of others in life and in death.

A.C.T. machine scanned the mummy from head to toe, creating 1,700 digital x-ray images in cross section. Tut’s head was scanned in 0.62 millimetre slices to register its complex structures. In the same way Tut’s entire body was recorded. A team of specialists in radiology, forensics and anatomy began to probe the secrets of the mummy so long protected by the winged goddesses.

The night of the scan, workmen carried Tut from the tomb to his box. Like pallbearers they climbed the flight of the stairs and brought out the body in to the bright sand outside. It was then placed on a hydraulic lift that held the scanner. Twenty minutes later two men came out, ran to an office nearby and returned with a pair of white plastic fans. The costly scanner had quit because of sand in a cooler fan. A guard nervously remarked that the scanner quited because of the cure of the Pharaoh.

After the change of the fans the machine worked well to finish the procedure. When the technicians found that no data had been lost, Tut’s body was returned to the workmen who carried him back to his tomb. He remained out of his coffin for three hours. After three hours he was again laid in his coffin where the funerary priests had placed him in rest so long ago.

Back in the trailer a technician pulled up astonishing images of Tut’s mummy on a computer screen. The image of a grey head emerged, scattering of pixels. The technician spun and titled it in every direction. The bond behind the neck appeared clearly. Other images revealed a hand, several views of the rib cage and a transection of the skull. Somehow the pressure was off. Sitting back in his chair Zahi Hawass smiled, visibly relieved that nothing had gone seriously wrong. He said that he could not sleep the previous night because he was worried about Tut’s mummy. He added that he hoped to sleep well and so said he went away.

By the time they had left the trailer and went to the sandy ground the wind had stopped. The winter air lay as cold and still as death itself in the valley of the departed. Orion stood just above the entrance to Tut’s tomb. The ancient Egyptian treated orion a constellation of stars as the soul of Osiris, the god of the afterlife watching over the kings.

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